Auction No 18 and 19 LIVE From Marudhar Arts India’s Leading Numismatic Gallery.


Marudhar Arts is be conducting the Floor Auction No 18 & 19 on 15th July and 16th July 2016 at “SHIKSHAK SADAN” Bangalore, Karnataka, INDIA.

They are Offering Some of the Rare Specimens in the Auctions …..

Gupta Dynasty, Samudragupta, Gold Dinar, King and Queen Type, Very Rare.
Delhi Sultanate, Muhammad Bin Tughluq, Gold Heavy 1/2 Dinar, Extremely Rare.
Akbar, Patna Mint, Gold Square Mohur, Kalima Type, Silver Rupee,Extremely Rare.
Tipu Sultan, Dharwar Mint, Gold Pagoda, Extremely Rare.
1880, Victoria Empress, Silver 1/2 Rupee, Calcutta Mint, A/I/C incuse, Extremely Rare.

And also They have Maratha Confederacy, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, Silver Rupee, Extremely Rare…

For more information about the same please contact us at Call: 080 – 65329800 | Email: | Website:



Coins provide not only substantiation of our glorious tradition and rich legacies, but also perception for comprehending the history and politics of a nation. As a means of communication, they speak to the political and spiritual ideologies that underlined a ruler’s or state’s claim to power.

Cowry shells were the first confirmation that any form of money existed. As India was ruled by many erstwhile kingdoms and dynasties ranging from the Mughals to The Britishers, it is indeed considered fortunate that we have a myriad of coins from different kingdoms and monarchs that further accentuate and enrich our historic culture.

Punch-marked coins are a type of early currency, dating between about the 6th and 2nd centuries BC. The first coins in India were minted around the 6th century BC by the Mahajanapadas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, and certainly before the invasion of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. The coins of this period were punch-marked coins called Puranas, Karshapanas or Pana. Several of these coins had a single symbol, for example, Saurashtra had a humped bull, and Dakshin Panchala had a Swastika, others, like Magadha, had several symbols.

These coins were made of silver of a standardized weight but with an uneven shape. This was gained by cutting up silver bars and then by standardizing the weight by cutting the edges of the coin. They are mentioned in the Manu, Panini, and Buddhist Jataka stories and lasted three centuries longer in the south than the north of India.

The Mauryan coins were punch marked with the royal standard to determine their legitimacy The Arthashastra, written by Kautilya, mentions minting of coins but also indicates that the violation of the Imperial Maurya standards by private enterprises may have been an offense. Kautilya also seemed to advocate a theory of bimetallism for coinage, which involved the use of two metals, copper and silver, under one government.

The Indo-Greek kings introduced Greek types, and among them the portrait head, into the Indian coinage, and their example was followed for eight centuries. Every coin has some mark of authority in it, this is what known as “types”. It appears on every Greek and Roman coin. Demetrios was the first Bactrian king to strike square copper coins of the Indian type, with a legend in Greek on the obverse, and in Kharoshthi on the reverse.

Copper coins, square for the most part, are very numerous. The devices are almost entirely Greek, and must have been engraved by Greeks, or Indians trained in the Greek traditions. The rare gold staters and the splendid tetra drachms of Bactria are the envy of any avid numismatist .The silver coins of the Indo-Greeks, as these later princes may conveniently be called, are the didrachm and the hemidrachm.

Kanishka’s copper coinage which came into scene during 100-200 CE was of two types: one had the usual “standing king” obverse; and on the rarer second type the king is sitting on a throne. At about the same time there was Huvishka’s copper coinage which was more varied; on the reverse, as on Kanishka’s copper, there was always one of the numerous deities; on the obverse the king was portrayed (1) riding on an elephant, or (2) reclining on a couch, or (3) seated cross-legged, or (4) seated with arms raised. is a Legendary Website devoted to coins from virtually every issuing authority in the world. Find here Old Coins for Sale & Sell Rare Coins with Best Quality and Guarantee.



The Gupta Empire produced large numbers of gold coins depicting the Gupta kings performing various rituals, as well as silver coins clearly influenced by those of the earlier Western Satraps by Chandragupta II.

The splendid gold coinage of Guptas, with its many types and infinite varieties and its inscriptions in Sanskrit, are the finest examples of the purely Indian art that we possess. Their era starts from around 320 with Chandragupta I’s accession of the throne. Son of Chandragupta I-Samudragupta, the real founder of the Gupta Empire had coinage made of gold only. There were seven different varieties of coins that appeared during his reign. Out of them the archer type is the most common and characteristic type of the Gupta dynasty coins, which were struck by at least eight succeeding kings and was a standard type in the kingdom

The silver coinage of Guptas starts with the overthrow of the Western Satraps by Chandragupta II. Kumaragupta and Skandagupta continued with the old type of coins (the Garuda and the Peacock types) and also introduced some other new types. The copper coinage was mostly confined to the era of Chandragupta II, and was more original in design. Eight out of the nine types known to have been struck by him have a figure of Garuda and the name of the King on it. The gradual deterioration in design and execution of the gold coins and the disappearance of silver money, bear ample evidence to their curtailed territory. The percentage of gold in Indian coins under the reign of Gupta rulers showed a steady financial decline over the centuries as it decreases from 90% pure gold under Chandragupta I(319-335) to a mere 75-80% under Skandagupta.

During the Indo-Scythians period whose era begins from 200 BCE to 400 CE,a new kind of the coins of two dynasties were very popular in circulation in various parts of the then India and parts of central and northern South Asia (Sogdiana, Bactria, Arachosia, Gandhara, Sindh, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar) These dynasties were Saka and The Pahlavas.After the conquest of Bactria by the Sakas in 135 BCE there must have been considerable intercourse sometimes of a friendly, sometimes of a hostile character, between them and the Parthians, who occupied the neighbouring territory.

Maues, whose coins are found only in the Punjab, was the first king of what may be called the Azes group of princes. His silver is not plentiful; the finest type is that with a “biga” (two-horsed chariot) on the obverse, and to this type belongs a square hemidrachm, the only square aka silver coin known. His commonest copper coins, with an elephant’s head on the obverse and a “Caduceus” (staff of the god Hermes) on the reverse are imitated from a round copper coin of Demetrius. On another copper square coin of Maues the king is represented on horseback. This striking device is characteristic both of the Saka and Pahlava coinage; it first appears in a slightly different form on coins of the Indo-Greek Hippostratos; the Gupta kings adopted it for their “horseman” type, and it reappears in Mediaeval India on the coins of numerous Hindu kingdoms, and was even employed by Muhammadan invaders until the 14th century CE. website has thousands of Varieties Listed, Complete with Large detail photos to help you attribute your Coins. They are Selling Old Coins to Proper Prices with Quality of Coins.

Skills and Abilities Required to be a Professional Editor

Make a comprehensive list is impossible, and every editor will prioritize some skills over others. However, I am convinced that these are some of the most important:

One of the major obstacles to this profession is the ego of the writer. This is a topic of much debate in forums and discussion groups of fans writing. If what motivates you to write is to see something of yours published and signed with your real name, the editor job is not for you.

On the Freelance Writer’s Guide, another must for anyone who wants to learn the profession book, Roger Garcia brilliantly explains:

‘The figure freelance copywriter has never had a major role. This is easily explained: we do not usually sign the work we do, but we sell them to others who are attributed authorship. In this sense, we are what we in the publishing jargon are known as “black” literary, because we received the money but enjoyed the “glory”. In other words, customers do not like to be known that that letter, article or press release you have written them, but a “mercenary” ‘.

 The editor should keep the ego in check, or end up passing bill. Nothing prevents you from developing other personal projects that you can sign your work. But when it comes to working with customers, your place is out of the spotlight.

More than skill, it is a matter of attitude. You have to be very disciplined to sit for hours to generate content that often are far from the personal tastes of the editor. Being motivated is crucial. And not only to write! Motivation is also essential when lifting a professional project from scratch. Want to know a little trick to be motivated? Set your goals from the beginning. One of the most common mistakes entrepreneurs it is to start work without a defined objective. Without clear goals to achieve, there is no motivation.

Being self – employed editor is as hard as any freelance work. You are your own boss, your own publicist, your own accountant, and may even be your own webmaster. Do not forget also that this is telecommuting. Probably you will not get rich, and you have to work much harder than if you were hired by account others. You can, however, enjoy other advantages, such as being your own boss, or work (if that’s what you really want). But if you aspire to enjoy the benefits of self – employment, you’re going to have to fight.

Start your activity as editor will be the hardest, and the option to throw in the towel can be very tempting. To avoid trouble, the best you can do is developing your business model as editor .Besides that, he works hard-and be patient! Of all the skills you need an editor, I think that none of them is completely inherent to the person, or in other words, virtually anyone can learn or develop the will and effort.

Perhaps the greatest difficulty they present are those skills related to correct use of the language. For ordinary mortals achieve excellence in writing requires years of study; but it is also true that some people have the necessary skills for the mere fact of having read a lot.

At the beginning of this post it said that many are considering the possibility of working as editors, but only a few can make a living writing. This is absolutely true, but in my opinion it is due to the problems facing the profession.

In short, it is true that the writer is not a conventional writer, has a more or less specific profile and must have certain skills. But anyone can meet the profile, if given the right conditions and appropriate means are provided. Luckily, there are lots of resources that will make things easier if you want to work as a generator of content. Some of them and have cited in this article.

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Our concern for the coursework writing should start at the same time of allocation thereof, that is, from the moment we are responsible for their implementation, defining an educational nature, extent and corresponding delivery.

If possible on our part the choice of subject in coursework writing will focus, experience indicates that it is important to choose a topic that interests us or we can develop interest. It is much easier to work on matters related to our intellectual concerns about matters that do not concern us, though often select our topics of jobs for other reasons (chances of getting help from friends or relatives for their realization).

When we have been assigned the realization of a research project as coursework, and no matter how long we have been given for this purpose, it is necessary to set a work schedule that allows us to have an estimate of time required to realize this work.

Generally there is a tendency to start late coursework writing . This happens because the mental calendar that we draw we face assuming optimal conditions (that weekend preceding the last date of delivery of work, during which work intensively and full-time, which means twelve hours a day). In reality, the optimal conditions never occur, and are likely to have to experience interruptions due to last minute commitments.

The recommendation would rather develop a realistic timetable that takes account of unforeseen according to the known law of Murphy (complications tend to occur when it is necessary not occur) and stick to that schedule.

After having such planning time, the immediate task is to clarify the issue on which we will work. This refers to the need to strengthen matter which will focus on work, understanding that the same issue can be addressed more or less detail and the work to be performed should be limited in size.

Suitable dimension coursework writing it is important to avoid unnecessary exertion then superfluous result (for example, to not collect more). An indicator that can help us in this task of narrowing the issue to be addressed as required, is the extent that the teacher attributed to the assignment; when it is given a minimum of 10 pages and a maximum of 20 pages, is giving us some indication of the depth is expected to treat the matter will be the subject of work.

However, it is not enough to reduce the ambitions of coursework writing as possible according to the required extent and while we devote to its realization. It is also part of our task to clarify the issue, define a specific thematic focus; establish the fundamental question we try to answer with arguments or facts that do not intend to collect. It should be noted that efforts to establish a realistic work schedule and specify the topic which will be investigated are tasks that can be performed without having to concentrate on writing itself, and therefore can be made for example while traveling to University or minutes lost in waiting rooms. As these tasks are critical to productively begin preparing the work, it should quickly assume at that time so we could use for the purpose of advancing without much effort in this task.

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How exactly to Fix Minecraft Insects Simply

Just what exactly is Minecraft? Minecraft is really a 30 megabyte sport downloadable in a one to two units and portable beyond belief. It requires devote a 3D globe where you are a designer and it is a sandbox experience cross wherever you do whatever you please. It is possible to create anything or do nothing if you want.

The current merely updated model of Minecraft may be the “limitless progress” or “infdev” which will be repeatedly updated. The Leader characteristics multiplayer and single player processes and contains motion more formulated than the basic model. You build anything you want, enemies prevent you, and you gather materials from items you have separated as a way to build up simple composition. You’ll find objects for example swords, minecarts, boxes, pails, crops where you are able to plant your own backyard, it is up to the gamer what to do.

Minecraft excels due to creativeness. The players themselves should devise the things they will do to be able to build what is in their creativeness. In Minecraft, you’re the builder of your planet.

Minecraft is an exceptional game. People playing this recreation may hrs to understand it. This is exactly why it runs on the lot of system resources and will encounter issues while managing. A lot of players suffer with one form of Minecraft crash. There are various causes behind Minecraft crashes in PCs. Originally there is apparently no fix. But, just a little method upkeep coupled with the right steps brings the game back again to its usual operating condition.

Below I have specified several ways which can enable you to repair this problem comfy. It’s important you follow these ways so as:

> Check for registry problem inside your technique. It’s really doable the registry knowledge has-been destroyed as a result of damaged registry tips produced by the Minecraft. Such issues in Windows registry, which really is a repository to retailer details about every one of the computer applications, triggers Minecraft to freeze generally. A trusted registry restoring method can help anyone clean Windows registry successfully.

> Clear method rubbish files and visitor trash records with the registry cleanerPERLaptop optimizer software.

> Defrag Windows registry data to help make the game-play sleek by arranging the fragmented registry info.

> Check for anti-virusORfirewall stopping the overall game.

> Erase temporary files of the Minecraft.

> Update Video Card people. Occasionally the outdated motorists furthermore lead to Minecraft crash.

> Boost Memory. It is recommended you are obtaining the required Memory potential to prevent recreation gommehd gratis problems.

> Obtain Minecraft again if the options listed above are not working to fix the problem.

> Interact With the port-number included, like this:

> Reinstall java

> Special identity such as for instance (!) inside the windows-user title may also develop issues. Adjusting the Windows consideration user name could be beneficial.

> Sometimes the issue is induced because of the machine overload. If you’re in a position to perform the game in single-player traditional mode then it is undoubtedly the host situation and you also have to wait to enjoy the game in multiplayer setting.

Minecraft Survival Guide

Minecraft has received a large amount of encouragement recently to be among the most creative activities designed for several years. Each game is arbitrarily designed of thousands and thousands of cubes. There are lots of several types of dice. Starting from strong rock, or soil and even lava blocks.



Philately is a leisure pursuit that grows on you as your compilation gets bigger and bigger. Before you realize, stamp collection becomes an encompassing obsession for which you somehow manage to keep aside a couple of hours of your busy agenda.

Every stamp collector dreams of having an assortment of stamps that has precious and exceptional stamps which will enhance the net value of their collection. However, it is an extremely difficult task to find a rare stamp unless you know what you are looking for and then pursue it enthusiastically. Rare stamps are not in constant circulation because stamp collectors hold them enduringly when they come across one.

Stamps are characterized as rare because of slip-ups in printing, perforation and pleased. Age is another factor that increases their value because stamps that are older are scarce and difficult to locate. Another category is the limited edition stamps which are also expensive because they subsist in small numbers. You must have detailed knowledge of philately to be able to source rare and valuable stamps.

Unused or mint condition stamps in superior condition attract greater price. Stamps that have no cancellation marks, are free of defects and have its original gum will add great value to your collection. Perforations are another consideration used to measure the value of a stamp. Some perforations may be rare and can enhance the value of a stamp notably.

Sometimes stamps of a particular batch are erroneously printed and even circulated before the inaccuracy is detected. Such stamps can be valued enormously high if they are in good condition. Check for blunders when you buy a stamp. This can help you categorize such stamps separately.

Philately involves devoting a lot of time for research and investigation. A good reference is required to get started. Investigation can help you understand more about how to target rare stamps and what type of stamps to add to your collection. It can also give you an insight into the rarest stamps of the world. The rarest stamp according to expert philately is the 1856 one cent British Guiana stamp also known as the British Guiana Scott 13.

Scrutiny for content error is a good way to ascertain the rarity of a stamp. The Scotts catalogue, the standard stamp reference guide is a good way to check content and evaluate them to find errors.

Philately is an exhilarating and gratifying hobby provided you have access to the right sources. Associating with stamp collecting groups and forums can help you enhance your knowledge considerably.

If you would like to start your own compilation and enjoyment of stamps Marudhar Arts provides you an exclusive insight to stamp collecting providing you a fundamental guide of stamp collecting, including how to identify and value your stamp, how to care for your stamps and offers a strategic platform to project the finesse and panache of collecting stamps. is Selling and auctioning rare Stamps and Collectable stamps in Online. They also Buy Stamp Collections with honesty and integrity.



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